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Annus Mirabilis

奇迹年          

   

1905 has often been called the AnnusMirabilis because, in this year, Einstein published four groundbreaking papers:

 1905年通常被称为奇迹年,在这一年,爱因斯坦发表的四篇开创性论文:

1.      "On a Heuristic ViewpointConcerning the Production and Transformation of Light" (June 1905)proposed an explanation for the photo-electric effect, and introduced theheuristic concept of quanta of light or energy.

1.在关于光的产生和转化的启发性观点(1905年6月)提出了光电效应的解释,并引入了光或能量量子的启发性概念。

2. "On the Motion of Small ParticlesSuspended in a Stationary Liquid, as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theoryof Heat" (July 1905) proposed an explanation for Brownian motion and aquantitative prediction that provided empirical evidence for the existence ofmolecules and atoms.

2.根据分子热运动理论的要求,悬浮在静止液体中的运动19057月)提出了布朗运动的解释和定量预测,为分子和原子的存在提供了经验证据。

3. "On the Electrodynamics of MovingBodies" (September 1905) proposed a reconciliation between Maxwell'sequations and classical mechanics by extending the classical principle ofrelativity and assuming the constant value of the speed of light in allinertial frames of reference.

3.关于运动物体的电动力学19059月)通过扩展经典相对性原理,假设所有惯性参照系中光的速度不变,提出了麦斯威尔方程与经典力学之间的调和。

4. "Does the Inertia of a Body DependUpon Its Energy Content?" (November 1905) proposed the famous E=mc2equation.

4.物体的惯性取决于它的能量含量吗?190511月)提出了著名的 E=mc2方程。

Let's have a look at these papers! Eventhough they are highly technical, there is a way of reading the papers that canbe very rewarding and does not require any special knowledge. Try to identifythe elements of Einstein's style that we have covered in this lesson.

让我们看看这些文件!尽管他们技术很高,但有一种方法可以阅读那些非常有价值而且不需要任何专门知识的论文。试着找出我们在本课中所谈到的爱因斯坦风格的元素。

The Style

风格

1.      Read carefully the introductionof each paper (i.e. the first paragraphs before the first section). Can youidentify a pattern in the way the main problem is presented? Is there anythingunusual that attracts your attention?

1。仔细阅读每一篇论文的介绍(即第一节前的第一段)。你能找出主要问题的模式吗?有什么异常吸引你的注意力吗?

2. How are the papers structured? You donot need to read the whole paper carefully, or understand all the mathematicaland technical details. Skim quickly through the papers to get a sense of howEinstein divided his papers.

2。论文是如何构成的?你不需要仔细阅读整篇论文,也不需要理解所有的数学和技术细节。快速浏览报纸,了解爱因斯坦是如何把文件分开的。

The Experiments

实验

1.      Is Einstein using any experimentalevidence to support his claims? What kind of experiments does he invoke, andhow does he talk about them? How specific is he? What kind of references doeshe use?

1。爱因斯坦用任何实验证据来支持他的说法吗?他引用了什么样的实验,他是如何谈论这些实验的?他具体有多大?他用什么样的参考书?             

2. Is Einstein making any sort ofexperimental predictions? What role do these predictions play in the paper?

2。爱因斯坦在做任何实验性的预测吗?这些预言在论文中起什么作用?