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Introduction to Rhythm

节奏介绍


Musical Time: Introduction to Rhythm

音乐时间:节奏介绍

Listento the opening of Handel's "He trusted in God" from the Messiah.Ignore for the time being the particular pitch-aspects of the passage (e.g.that it begins with a falling fifth, that it starts on G, etc.) and try tofocus only on the organization of those events as they unfold in time.

听来自于HandelMessiah的“他相信上帝”的开幕,忽略乐段特定的音调方面(例如,它开始于下降的五度,它开始于G等),努力集中在按时间展开的这些事件的组织上。

Example9. Handel, "He trusted in God."

9. Handel,“他相信上帝”。


What can we observe about the passage?

我们可以从该乐段中发现什么呢?

One thing you may have noticed is that somenotes last longer than others. For example, the opening two notes on syllables"He trust-" are longer than the next four notes on the syllables"-ed in God that." Some even shorter notes happen on the word"would." This aspect of musical time concerns the relative durationsof notes. Rhythm is the musical term often used to describe a particular seriesof durations, although rhythm also has a broader meaning, as we shall seeshortly, that encompasses more than just duration.

有一件事你可能已经注意到,有些音符比其他的要持续更久。例如,关于“He trust-”音节的开头两个音符,要比接下来的四个音节“-ed in God that.”要长。“would”这一词的音符有些甚至更短。音乐时间的这个方面涉及音符的相对持续时间。节奏是经常被用来描述特定的一系列持续时间的音乐术语,虽然节奏也具有更广泛的含义,正如我们将要看到的那样,它不仅包含持续时间。

Can you snap your fingers to the excerpt?Start snapping on the first three syllables "He trust-ed" and see ifyou can keep snapping evenly at that speed. Do your continuing snaps sometimesline up with syllables as their sung (snapping always on he, -liv and him) butmiss others (never snapping on de-, -ver, let). If so, your fingers (and yourmusical intuition) found the beat, a steady pulse that underlies musical works(and can also rise to the surface, especially in dance music).

Finally, did you notice that some words andsyllables receive greater emphasis than others? The syllable "trust"is more emphatic that the subsequent syllable "-ed." The syllable"-liv-" in "deliver" is more emphatic than the syllable"him," even though all these syllables happen on the beat. Thisaspect of musical time, the regular emphasis of some beats over others, iscalled meter. Musical meter is intimately related to poetic meter.Consequently, we will draw on examples of poetic verse and familiar nurseryrhymes as we discuss musical time.

你可以用你的手指捕捉片段吗?开始捕捉前三个音节“He trust-ed”,看看你是否能以这样的速度保持均匀的捕捉。你的持续捕捉有时候会跟着他们唱的音节(捕捉的总是he, -liv him),但是却错过了其他的(没有捕捉到de-, -ver, let)。如果是这样,你的手指(和你的音乐直觉)就找到了节拍,一个稳定的脉冲,这是音乐作品的基础(也可以上升到表面,特别是在舞曲中)。

最后,你有没有注意到有些词和音节比其他的更受强调?音节“信任”更强调后面的音节“-ed”。即使所有这些音节都发生在节拍上,“deliver”中的音节“-liv-”比音节“him”更受强调。音乐时间这方面,一些节拍的规律性强调,就是格律。音乐格律与诗的格律密切相关。因此,在我们讨论音乐时间时,我们将借鉴诗歌和熟悉的童谣例子。

Rhythm in a more general sense referscollectively to all these aspects of musical time--to series of durations heardwithin a particular metrical scheme. The following sections explore in moredetail these individual aspects of rhythm--the beat, duration, meter--andintroduce some conventions of rhythmic notation.

更一般意义上的节奏是指音乐时间的所有这些方面 - 在特定的格律中所听到的一系列持续时间。下面的章节将更详细地探讨这些节奏的各个方面 - 节拍,持续时间,格律 - 并介绍一些节奏符号的约定。



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The Beat

节拍


Musical Time: The Beat

音乐时间:节拍

Fundamental to the organization of soundsin musical time is a regularly occurring pulse called the beat, a basic unit ofduration that divides time into equal segments, much like seconds divide aminute. The big difference is that, unlike a second, no bureau of weights andmeasures decides how long a beat lasts--each piece of music does that, and thebeat itself becomes the standard against which musical events are measured intime.

音乐时间里声音组织的基础是定期发生的脉冲,叫做节拍,它是将时间划分成相等段的基本持续时间单位,就像分钟划成秒一样。最大的区别在于,与二度不同的是,没有任何一个衡量标准决定着节奏持续多长时间 - 每一首音乐都是这样做的,节拍本身成为衡量音乐事件的标准。

Example 10. Handel, "He trusted inGod."

10. Handel,“他相信上帝”。



Example 10 again plays "He trusted inGod" from Messiah. This time however, it does so while marking the beatsvisually. Try playing the example with the beats marked (snapping your fingers,perhaps, with the flashing beats), then play just the music and see if you canstill feel the beats.

You may have experienced beats in anon-musical context, if you have ever read or been read text in verse. Read thetext to the familiar nursery rhyme, "Hickory, dickory, dock"(preferably aloud):

10再次演奏了Messiah“他相信上帝”的片段。但是这一次,它在视觉上标记节拍时是这样做的。尝试播放标有节拍的示例(也许,用闪烁的节拍敲击手指),然后播放音乐,看看是否还可以感受到节拍。

如果你曾经在乐段中读过这样的节拍,你可能会体验非音乐背景下的节拍。阅读文本到熟悉的童谣,“嘀嗒,嘀嗒,钟声响”(最好是大声):

Hickory, dickory, dock!

Hickory, dickory, dock!

嘀嗒,嘀嗒,钟声响!

The mouse ran up the clock.

老鼠跑上了钟。

The clock struck one,

钟敲响了一下,

The mouse ran down,

老鼠又跑下来,

Hickory, dickory, dock!

嘀嗒嘀嗒钟声响!

How does one know how long to pause betweenthe first and second lines? If you are reading the lines as verse, the answeris because there is a beat, a pulse that measures when and how fast you saythings. Beats occur on the first syllables of "Hickory" and"dickory," and on the word "dock." A fourth beat happenswhile you pause, and you then say the word "the" from line two justbefore the next beat on the word "mouse."

如何知道在第一行和第二行之间停顿多久?如果你正在读诗句,答案是因为有一个节拍,你说话的时间和速度的脉冲。在“Hickory”和“dickory”的第一个音节和“dock”一词上出现节奏。当你暂停时发生第四个节拍,然后在下一个节拍“mouse”之前,说出第二行“the”这个词。

The "Hickory, dickory, dock"example illustrates that beats happen even when there is silence. Of course,the beat can came to surface as well--it is often played explicitly by basspercussion instruments in rock and dance music.

“嘀嗒嘀嗒钟声响”的例子说明即使在无声状态下也会有节拍。当然,节拍也可以出现在表面 - 通常在摇滚和舞曲中用低音打击乐器来明确演奏。

The relative speed of the beat, how long itlasts, is called the tempo. Music in a fast tempo has very quick beats. Musicin a slow tempo has longer lasting beats. At the very end of "He trustedin God," Handel slows down the tempo. Compare the tempo of beats in thefollowing example, to those at the top of this page.

节拍的相对速度,它持续多久,被称为节奏。快节奏的音乐有很快的节拍。慢节奏的音乐有持续更长的节拍。在“他相信上帝”的最后,Handel放慢节奏。将以下示例中的节拍速度与本页顶部的节拍速度进行比较。

Example 11. Handel, "He trusted inGod," ending.

11. Handel,“他相信上帝”,结束。



You may have noticed that beyond thegeneral slowing of the tempo there is an extra slow down (called a ritardando)on the word "in" just before the final "him." This is adevice used by the conductor to add more emphasis at the work's ending (i.e. bycreating a bit of suspense about when the beat on "him" will actuallyhappen).

你可能已经注意到,除了节奏的普遍放缓之外,在最后一个“him”之前的“in”这个词还有一个额外的减速(叫做徐缓之乐曲)。这是指挥所使用的一种装置,在工作结束时增加了更多的重点(即通过在“him”的节拍实际发生时产生一些悬念)。


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Duration

持续时间

Musical Time: Duration

音乐时间:持续时间

We observed earlier that some notes in"He trusted in God" lasted longer than others. The length of aparticular note is called its duration. Yet the relative length or shortness ofthe notes is not arbitrary or random. Rather, the durations stand in rationalproportion. Listen again to the passage, given as Example 12.

我们之前观察到,“他相信上帝”中的一些音符持续时间比其他的长。特定音符的长度称为它的持续时间。然而,音符的相对长或短并不是任意的或随机的。持续时间成合理比例。再听一遍,如例12所示。

Example 12. Handel, "He trusted inGod."

12 Handel:“他相信上帝”。


If we designate with the letter X theduration of the first two notes (on the syllables "He" and"trust-"), then the next four shorter notes last half as long as thefirst two--a duration we could label half-X, or X/2. The fastest notes of thepassage on "would" are half as long as the X/2 notes on "-ed inGod that" or four times shorter than the opening notes on "He trust-."Consequently we could label the shortest notes X/4. The longest note of thepassage occurs on the word "he" and lasts three-halves the durationof the X (i.e. 3X/2).

如果我们用字母X来指定前两个音符(在音节“He”和“trust-”)的持续时间,则接下来的四个较短的音符与前两个音符一样长 - 我们可以标记半-XX / 2的持续时间。在“would”这一段中,最快的音符长度是“-ed in God that”的X / 2音符的一半,或者比“He trust-”的开头音符短四倍。因此,我们可以标注最短的音符X / 4。乐段最长的音符出现在“he”上,并持续了X的二分之三(即3X / 2)。

Music most commonly uses notes whose durationsare halves of one another (called duple divisions) or sometimes thirds of oneanother (called triple divisions). Other durational relations arise fromcombinations of these (quarters as halves of halves, eighths as halves ofhalves of halves, etc.).

音乐最常用的音符是持续时间彼此相等的一部分(称为双重音部分),或者有时是三分之一(称为三重音部分)。其他持续的关系是由这些组合产生的(四分之一为一半的一半,八分之一作为一半的一半的一半等)。

Figure 7

7

When music is written down, these relativedurational values are expressed by the shapes of the notes. Figure 7illustrates some of the anatomical features of musical notes--features that areused to indicate a note's duration. Figure 8 illustrates a tree of durationalvalues and their notation, both for notes and for rests (because, as we notedearlier, silence is part of music and it, too, is measured in time).

当音乐被写下时,这些相对的持续时间值由音符的形状表示。图7说明了音符的一些解剖特征 - 用于指示音符持续时间的特征。图8显示了一个持续时间值及其符号的树状图,既用于音符也适用于休止符(因为正如我们前面提到的,无声状态是音乐的一部分,而且它也是在时间上测量的)。

Figure 8. Durational divisions and symbolsfor notes (left) and rests (right).

8.音符(左)和休止符(右)的持续时间划分和符号。

The figure starts at the top with thesymbol used for a whole note--an open notehead. The figure similarly shows awhole rest to the right, a small rectangle that hangs below a staff line. Thewhole becomes divided by two at the next lower level to produce the halfnote/half rest. The half note is distinguished by a stem added to the opennotehead. The half is divided by two at the next level to produce the quarternote, symbolized by a filled in notehead with stem. At the next level is theeighth note, which looks like a quarter, but has a flag added to the stem. Whenmore than one eighth note appear together, the flags may be joined together toform a single beam that connects their stems. Shorter durations that arise fromduple division continue to add flags/beams. Sixteenth notes have twoflags/beams, thirty-second notes have three flags/beams, and so on. (NOTE: thefigure plays two whole-notes-worth of each duration (i.e. 2 whole notes, 4halves, 8 quarters, etc.)

该图从上面开始,用整个音符的符号 - 一个开放的符头。该图同样显示了整个右边的休止符,一个悬挂在五线谱线下方的小矩形。整体在下一级被分成两半,产生半音/半休止音。半音符是通过添加到打开符头上的词干来区分的。一半在下一层被分成两部分以产生四分之一音符,由一个带有词干的符头来表示。在下一级是第八个音符,看起来像四分之一,但是有一个标志添加到词干。当多于八分之一的音符一起出现时,这些标志可以连接在一起形成连接它们词干的单个词束。由双重部分产生的较短的持续时间继续添加标志/词束。十六分音符有两个标志/词束,三十二分音符有三个标志/词束,依此类推。(注意:这个数字在每个持续时间里都会有两个值得注意的值(即2个整个音符,4个半音,8个四分之一音))

New note durations can be created by addingnotes of various values together using a tie, a curved line that joins twonoteheads. For example, to create a note that lasted a duration five-fourths(5/4) that of a whole note, we could tie a whole note to a quarter. This isillustrated in Figure 9. NOTE: even though there are two note symbols used, theresult is just one note that lasts as long as five quarter notes.

可以用连接两个符头的曲线或连线将各种值的音符添加在一起,从而创建新的音符持续时间。例如,要创建一个持续时间为整个音符的四分之五(5/4)的音符,我们可以将整个音符连接到四分之一。如图9所示。注意:即使使用了两个音符,结果只是一个音符持续四分之五个音符。

Figure 9.

9

A special symbol is used when a note isadded to a note of half its value: the dot. A dot added to a half note isequivalent to a half plus a quarter (=3/4). A dot added to a quarter isequivalent to a quarter plus eighth (=3/8). These is illustrated in Figure 10.

当一个音符被添加到其值的一半音符时,使用一个特殊符号:点。添加到一个半音的点相当于一半加四分之一(= 3/4)。添加到四分之一的点等于四分之一加八分之一(= 3/8)。这些如图10所示。

Figure 10. Dotted notes.

10.点缀音符


Dotted notes can be used to createinteresting rhythmic patterns. For example, instead of using all eighth notesto create an even rhythm click on "play example" next to the"eighth" line in Fig. 8), Handel, in "For unto us" from theMessiah uses patterns of dotted eighths alternating with sixteenth notes tocreate a "limping" rhythm.

点缀音符可以用来创造有趣的节奏模式。例如,HandelMessiah的“对我们来说”中使用了八分之一点缀的图案,而不是用所有的八度音符创造一个均匀的节奏,点图8中“第八行”旁边的“播放例子”,与十六度音符交替创造一个“跛行”的节奏。

In Example 12, we used the letter X todenote the beat unit in "He trusted in God." When Handel wrote thepiece, he designated the quarter note as the beat unit. (In the next section,we will see how Handel makes this explicit.) Consequently all the relativedurations in the passage can be notated by specific note values relative to thequarter (quarters, eighths, sixteenths and their combinations). Figure 11illustrates the series of durations from the opening of "He trusted inGod." NOTE: the passage begins with a quarter note rest in the singer'spart only--the orchestra plays right from the beginning.

12中,我们用字母X表示“他相信上帝”中的节拍单位。Handel在创作时,他把四分之一音符指定为拍子单位。(在下一节中,我们将看到Handel如何明确这一点)。因此,这段乐段中的所有相对时长都可以用相对于四分之一(四分之一,八分之一,十六分之一及其组合)的具体音符值来表示。图11展示了“他相信上帝”的一系列持续时间。注意:这个乐段是以歌手的四分之一音符开始的 - 乐团从头开始播放。

Figure 11. Notated durations from "Hetrusted in God."

11.来自“他相信上帝”注释的持续时间。


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Meter

格律

 

Musical Time: Meter

音乐时间:格律

Musical time is not measured simply by aseries of undifferentiated beats, rolling along one after the other. Instead,beats are organized into regular patterns of strong and weak (i.e. moreemphasized and less emphasized). This patterning of strong and weak beats iscalled meter.

音乐时间不是简单地通过一系列未分化的节拍来衡量的,一个接一个地滚动。相反,节拍组织成强弱的规律(即更强调和更少强调)。这种强弱的跳动模式被称为格律。

Musical meter will be a familiar concept toanyone who has studied poetic verse, particulary English verse, which also isorganized by patterns of strong and weak syllables (called poetic meters).Consider, for example, these lines of verse by Richard Barnfield (fl. ca.1600):

对于学习过诗歌的人来说,音乐格律是一个熟悉的概念,特别是英语诗歌,也是由强弱音节(称为诗意格律)组成的。例如,可以考虑瑞查德·巴菲尔德(约1600页)的这些诗句:

As it fell upon a day

当它一天之后落下

in the merry month of May,

在快乐的五月里

--collected in England's Helicon.

- 收藏在英格兰的海里肯

Do you feel the repeating pattern ofSTRONG-weak, STRONG-weak, etc. (AS it FELL up-ON a DAY (rest) IN the MER-ryMONTH of MAY). Each repeating unit in poetry is called a foot, and theparticular kind of foot (i.e. STONG-weak) in the Barnfield example is a trochee(the verse is thus an example of trochaic verse). Here is a different examplefrom Ted Geisel (a.k.a. Dr. Seuss):

你感觉到强-弱、强-弱等的重复模式了吗(AS it FELL up-ON a DAY (休止) IN the MER-ryMONTH of MAY)。诗歌中的每个重复单位叫做一个音步,在巴菲尔德的例子中,这种特殊的音步(即“强-弱”)是一个单音(这个单词就是一个例子)。这里是特德·盖塞尔(又名苏斯博士)的另一个例子:

[Think of]

想到

Peter the Postman

彼德邮递员

who crosses the ice

穿过冰雪

once every day--

每天一次 -

and on Saturdays, twice.

每周六两次

--From Oh the Thinks you can Think.

- 从你所想可以想到

These lines--after the initial twosyllables--follow the pattern STRONG-weak-weak, STRONG-weak-weak, etc. (i.e.PET-er the POST-man who CROSS-es the ICE (rest rest), ONCE ev-ry DAY and onSAT-ur-days TWICE) The example uses a poetic foot known as a dactyl. (NOTE: youwill not be tested on the Greek names of particular poetic feet!) If you werecounting beats aloud as you read these lines to yourself, your count might gosomething like:

这些歌词在最初的两个音节之后遵循强--弱,强--弱等(即 PET-er the POST-man who CROSS-es the ICE (休止 休止), ONCE ev-ry DAYand on SAT-ur-days TWICE)这个例子使用了一个诗般的音步,被称为强弱格。(注意:你不会在特定诗脚的希腊名字进行测试!)如果你在读这些歌词的时大声数节拍,那么你的数字可能会变成:

(2 3) 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3etc.

(2 3) 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

This pattern STRONG-weak-weak is familiarif you have ever danced a waltz. Listen to the following waltz from Prokofiev'sballet Cinderella. Watch and count along as the beats are displayed on thescreen. Try to continue counting after the numbers on the screen stop (theywill cycle through eight times)--the "Oom-pa-pa" of the orchestrashould help keep you on track.

如果你曾经跳过华尔兹,那么你会很熟悉这种强--弱的模式。听普罗科菲耶夫的芭蕾灰姑娘的华尔兹。随着节拍显示在屏幕上,观看并数节拍。


Example 13. Prokofiev, Waltz fromCinderella.

13.普罗科菲耶夫,来自灰姑娘的华尔兹。

The Prokofiev waltz is an example of apiece of music in 3/4 meter (read "three-four meter"). The threemeans that the meter has a repeating pattern three units long and the fourindicates that the unit is a quarter note. 3/2 meter is a repeating patternthree half notes in length. In both cases, the beat pattern goes "STRONG-weak-weak."

普罗科菲耶夫华尔兹是一段3/4格律(读“三-四格律”)音乐的例子。意思是格律具有三个单元长的重复模式,4表示该单元是四分之一音符。 3/2格律是一个长度为三个半音符的重复模式。在这两种情况下,节拍模式都是“强--弱”。

Music uses patterns like the Barnfieldtrochees: STRONG-weak STRONG-weak. Such are 2/4 and 2/2 meters. Music also hasmore complicated patterns. Handel's "He trusted in God" is in 4/4meter, meaning that there is a repeating pattern of four quarter-note beatsthat goes STRONG-weak-MEDIUM-weak, STRONG-weak-MEDIUM-weak, etc. We might countthis:

音乐使用像巴恩菲尔德一样的模式:强-弱强-弱。这是2/42/2格律。音乐也有更复杂的模式。Handel的“他相信上帝”是4/4格律,这意味着四重四分音符的重复模式是强-------弱等,我们也可以这样数:

1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4-1 etc.

1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4-1

Example 14 illustrates 4/4 meter in"He trusted in God." Watch and count along as the example plays, thenplay just the music and see if you can still count and feel the meter.

14说明“他相信上帝”是4/4格律。随着例子的播放,观察和数节拍,然后播放音乐,看看你是否仍然可以数节拍和感受格律。

Example 14. Handel, "He trusted inGod."

14. Handel,“他相信上帝”。


Figure 12 illustrates how features ofmusical meter are notated, using the passage from "He trusted inGod." The figure illustrates the time signature, the numbers or symbolswritten at the beginning of a work that identify the work's meter (in this case4 over 4). The example also illustrates bar lines, vertical lines accross thestaff that mark off repeating units of the meter--in this case units of fourquarter notes. The boxes on the staff demarcated by the bar lines are calledmeasures. The first beat of any measure is the strongest--other beats withinthe measure are weighted according to the time signature. Think of measures asthe visual containers that hold (in this case) four quarter-notes-worth ofstuff (i.e. notes of various duration).

12展示了如何使用“他相信上帝”乐段来记录音乐格律的特征。该图说明了时间签名,数字或符号写在可以鉴别作品格律(在本例中为44)的作品的开始部分。这个例子还说明了小节线中纵横向的歌词,标出了格律的重复单位 - 在这种情况下,是四个四分音符的单位。展现在词曲中的横向歌词称为度量。任何度量的第一个节拍是最强的 - 度量内的其他节拍根据拍号进行加权。将度量视为可视容器(在这种情况下)四个四分之一的东西(即不同持续时间的音符)。


There are many particular meters other thanthose discussed here. Your TF can discuss these as they arise. The big point totake away from these last few pages is that rhythm is more than just a seriesof durations. We experience musical time as the interaction of beats, tempo,duration and meter. Think of meter as a grid on which series of durations areoverlaid and which affects how we experience those durations. Think howdifferent Handel's piece would sound if it were overlaid differently: HEtrust-ED in god that HE...etc. Similarly, try to imagine how different thewaltz would sound if you tried to force it into 4/4--can you even count (withemphasis)  1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4   while the waltz plays?

除了这里讨论的那些以外,还有很多特定的格律。您可以在出现这些时去讨论这些问题。最后几页的重点是,节奏不仅仅是一系列的持续时间。我们体验音乐时间作为节奏,速度,持续时间和格律的相互作用。把格律看作是一系列持续时间叠加的网格,这会影响我们如何体验这些持续时间。想想Handel的作品如果有不同的叠加,会发出多么不同的声音:HE trust-ED in god that HE...,等等。同样的,试着想象一下,如果你试图把华尔兹变成4/4,它听起来会有怎样的不同,当华尔兹弹奏时 - 你可以(强调地)数 1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4  吗?