Topic Matching

标题内容搭配题

1.概括大意题

1) 考查要点

该题型考查的是考生把握主旨大意,进行概括总结的能力。

2) 解题步骤

①首先将题目给出的六个标题通读一遍,因为给出的六个标题中,只有一个是多余的,因此,从所给出的标 题中就可以看出整篇文章所讲的大致内容; 

②通过看标题了解文章所讲的大致内容之后,快速将全文浏览一遍;

③通过对文章的第一遍浏览,选择自己能确定的标题或概括句填入相应的位置;

④重点阅读还没有确定标题和概括句的段落,此时要特别注意每一段中出现频率很高的词语,因为这样的一 篇小文章一般都是围绕一个主题来讲述的,所以段落之间有一定的连贯性,每个段落一般都是从一个不同的角度 来阐述该篇文章的主题的,所以在选择每一段落的标题的时候,抓段落关键词很重要,而段落的关键词一般都是那些出现频率很高的词语。

⑤通过第 4 步,确定剩下还有没有确定的小标题或概括句;

⑥检查并阅读没有被选的标题或概括句,确定它不是该题目的答案。

3) 解题技巧

①某段话的答案确定后,将这一选项从备选项中划去。

②抓住选项中的名词中心词,并将其拿到原文中去寻找与其对应的名词中心词。 如 2007 年真题第 43 题,

Teachers are responsible for teaching kids how to learn; parents should be responsible for teaching them how to work. Assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are met. Encourage teenagers to take a part-time job. Kids need plenty of practice delaying gratif ication and deploying effective organizational skills, such as managing time and setting priorities.

解析:这一段开头就点明父母应该教导孩子如何工作,父母应该在家中让孩子分担责任,并鼓励孩子兼职打工,这样通过实践来让孩子获得工作方面的技能。可见本段的中心词是―work‖,而选项中只有 B 项的中心词 为―work‖,所以考虑选 B 项。

③干扰选项的特点是段落中未展开详细的说明。作为干扰选项出现的常常是段落中提到的细节,但我们要找 的是段落的主旨。这更说明做这种题要抓住段落的主题句,而不是整个段落的具体细节。否则,特别容易受到干扰选项的误导。

④如果主题句比较复杂(如复合句),应重点看主句部分。有时主题句是比较复杂的复合句,如果理解有困 难,应集中精力看主句部分,正确答案应来自主句。

⑤这类题目一般都是第一段和最后一段不用加标题或概括句,所以在阅读的时候,第一段和最后一段可以略 读。时间主要用在中间五个段落的阅读上。

4) 真题分析

Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about what parents are supposed to do to guide their children into adulthood. Choose a heading from the list A-G that best fits the meaning of each numbered part of the text

(41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There are two extra headings that you do not need

to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)(2007 年真题)

A. Set a Good Example for Your Kids

B. Build Your Kids‘ Work Skills

C. Place Time Limits on Leisure Activities

D. Talk about the Future on a Regular Basis

E. Help Kids Develop Coping Strategies

F. Help Your Kids Figure Out Who They Are

G. Build  Your Kids‘ Sense of Responsibility

How Can a Parent Help?

Mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe landing in ear ly adulthood for their kids. Even if a job‘s starting salary seems too small to satisfy an emerging adult‘s need for rapid content, the transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult is ready for the move. Here are a few measures, drawn from my book Ready or Not, Here Life Comes, that parents can take to prevent what I call ―work-life unreadiness.‖

41.

You can start this process when they are 11 or 12. Periodically review their emerging strengths and weaknesses with them and work together on any shortcomings, like difficulty in communicating well or collaborating. Also, identify the

kinds of interests they keep coming back to, as these offer clues to the careers that will fit them best.

42.

 Kids need a range of authentic role models—as opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and vaunted athletes. Have regular dinner-table discussions about people the family knows and how they got where they are. Discuss the joys and downsides of your own career and encourage your kids to form some ideas about their own future. When asked what

they want to do, they should be discouraged from saying ―I have no idea.‖ They can change their minds 200 times, but

having only a foggy view of the future is of little good.

43.

Teachers are responsible for teaching kids how to learn; parents should be responsible for teaching them how to work. Assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are met. Encourage teenagers to take a part-time job. Kids need plenty of practice delaying gratification and deploying effective organizational skills, such as managing time and setting priorities.

44.

Playing video games encourages immediate content. And hours of watching TV shows with canned laughter only teaches kids to process information in a passive way. At the same time, listening through earphones to the same monotonous beats for long stretches encourages kids to stay inside their bubble instead of pursuing other endeavors. All these activities can prevent the growth of important communication and thinking skills and make it difficult for kids to develop the kind of sustained concentration they will need for most jobs.

45.

They should know how to deal with setbacks, stresses and feelings of inadequacy. They should also learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts, ways to brainstorm and think critically. Discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them apply these skills to everyday life situations.

What about the son or daughter who is grown but seems to be struggling and wandering aimlessly through early adulthood? Parents still have a major role to play, but now it is more delicate. They have to be careful not to come across as  disappointed  in their child.  They should  exhibit  strong interest  and respect for whatever currently  interests their

fledging adult  (as naive or ill conceived as it may seem) while becoming a partner in exploring options for the future.

Most of all, these new adults must feel that they are respected and supported by a family that appreciates them.

【答案及解析】

41.F 这一段主要讲的是父母应该定时地与孩子讨论他们的优缺点所在,并一起努力克服弱点。父母还应该帮助 孩子识别他们的兴趣,为他们将来最适合什么样的职业提供线索。所以这一段的中心主题是父母应该帮助 孩子进行自我认识,也就是―help your kids figure out who they are‖,并且让孩子了解自己的长处和短处以 及兴趣点所在。

42.D 这一段主要在阐述父母应该帮助引导孩子对未来做出规划,首先父母要与孩子讨论自己事业的喜怒成败, 然后鼓励孩子对自己的未来有所想法。不要让他们对未来毫无打算,所以本段的主题应该是―talk    about    the future‖,即引导孩子规划未来。

43.B 这一段开头就点明父母应该教导孩子如何工作,父母应该在家中让孩子分担责任,并鼓励孩子兼职打工, 这样通过实践来让孩子获得工作方面的技能。本段的中心主题是父母应该帮助孩子培养工作技能,即―build your kids‘ work skill‖。

44.C 这一段主要讲述了过多的娱乐活动给孩子带来的负面影响,过长时间看电视等都不利于孩子的进取心和主 动性,并且会阻碍他们发展重要的沟通和思考技能,所以本段主要说明父母应该为孩子的休闲娱乐活动设定时间限制,即―place time limits on leisure activities‖。

45.E 孩子们应该知道如何应对挫折、压力和空虚感,也应该知道如何解决问题、化解矛盾等技巧,而这些都是 需要父母在家中帮助孩子锻炼和实践这些能力。所以本段的中心就是父母应该帮助孩子培养处理各种问题的能力,即―help kids develop coping strategies‖。 2.信息匹配题

1) 考查要点

和选小标题或概括句的题型相反,这类题目要求考生有发散的思维,小标题或概括句是要从段落中概括出每 个段落的主要意思,而选例子或阐述需要考生选择恰当的例子或阐述性文字对段落大意进行较为详细的说明。

2) 解题步骤

①首先将整个文章浏览一遍,重点留意被标号的段落,因为这些段落是需要选择例子或阐述句填充的段落;

②将文章后面给出的例子或阐述句阅读一遍,知道每个例子或阐述句大概讲的什么意思;

③按顺序阅读带标号的段落,将自己能确定的例子或阐述句放入相应段落;

④针对没有确定填入例子或阐述句的段落,反复阅读剩下的例子或阐述句;

⑤通过第 4 步,将相应的例子或阐述句填入相应的段落;

⑥检查并阅读没有被选的例子或阐述句,确定它不是该题目的答案。 注:可以看出在做选择小标题或概括句的题目和做选例子或阐述句的题目时有一点不相同。前者,我们一般是先阅读所给的标题或概括句,先了解文章的的主题再进行阅读;而后者我们一般是先阅读给出的文章,再带着 文章大意去阅读所给选项。但这些做法的目的都是为了尽快掌握文章大意和所要解答的问题,做到有的放矢。

3) 解题技巧

①依据紧跟标题的文字部分来确定标题的确切意思,注意文字或句子的形式变化。根据上下文判断含义是阅 读理解中最常用的方法。同时要特别注意文中可能出现的同义词、反义词等。

②干扰项的特征是其所举的例证与标题只是部分相关,或与该文章中的两个标题同时有关,或者是与标题不直接相关。

③在这类题目里,需要填入例子或阐述句的段落都是被标号了的,所以它们是需要阅读和理解的重点,其他 没有被标号的段落可以略读。时间主要用在被标号段落的阅读上。

4) 真题解析

Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered gaps. There are two extra choices, which you do not need to use in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)(2006 年真题)

On the north bank of the Ohio River sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams, 52, and of a riverboat casino (a place where gambling games are played). During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling.

He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost $800. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a ―Fun Card,‖ which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user ‘s gambling activities. For Williams, these activities become what he calls ―electronic heroin.‖

(41) . In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat locked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem.In March 1998, a friend of Williams‘s got him involuntar ily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams‘s gambling problem. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a ―cease admissions‖ letter. Noting the ―medical/psychological‖ nature of problem gambling behavior, the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being.

(42) .

The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 24 signs warning: ―Enjoy the fun... and always bet with your head, not over it.‖ Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health.  Nevertheless,  Williams‘s  suit charges  that the casino,  knowing he was  ―helplessly addicted to gambling,‖ intentionally worked to ―lure‖ him to ―engage in conduct against his will.‖ Well.

(43) .

The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders says ―pathological gambling‖ involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of the thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall.

(44) . Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered

character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities.

(45) .

Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on—you might say addicted to—revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers‘ dollars has become intense. The Oct. 28 issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web‘s most profitable business.

 

A.Although no such evidence was presented, the casino‘s marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected.

B.It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative?

C. By the time he had lost $5,000 he said to himself that if he could get back to even, he would quit. One night he won $5,500, but he did not quit.

D. Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is the government.

E. David Williams‘s  suit should trouble this gambling nation. But don‘t bet on it.

F. It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will.

G. The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conducive to compulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Internet gambling, what would be its grounds for doing so?

【答案及解析】

41.C 从文章叙述的顺序来看,作者是按照 David Williams 所输的钱数由低到高叙述的,所以 800 美元和 21000 美元之间的过渡就是他输了 5000 美元,虽然后来他赚回来了,但是他还是没有退出,所以导致随后他输 了更多的钱。

42.A 上文提到 casino 要求 David Williams 必须提供他精神和心理方面的信息能够证明赌博对他的安全和健康没 有威胁,才肯让他继续参与。所以下文应该讲到他如何又继续参与了赌博。虽然他并没有提供任何的证据, 但是 casino 的市场部门仍然不停地给他寄信,导致他继续出现在赌博场上也没有被发现。

43.B 上文说到 David Williams 事件控告 casino 在知道他沉迷于赌博的时候,仍然“引诱”他去做“违背他的意愿”的事情。所以下文应该针对这个说法进行阐述,而 B 项正是对这个说法提出了疑问。

44.F 下文提出,现在的科学已经将性格缺陷和道德败坏看作是身体机能残疾相似的个性紊乱,说明现代社会越 来越多地将行为上的问题医学化处理,并将前辈所说的上瘾定义为意志薄弱。

45.D下文介绍了美国赌博场所分布的具体情况,说明 44 个州有彩票抽奖,29 个有 casino,网络上的赌博程度 更加严重。所以说赌博已经成为美国人生活的普遍特征。虽然之前赌博被看作是犯罪,但是现在政府已经成为赌博最大的纵容者和推动者。