Cloze In-class Ex3 key

In 1924 America’s National ResearchCouncil sent two engineers to supervise a series of industrial experiments at alarge telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hopedthey would learn how shop-floor lighting 1 workers’ productivity.Instead, the studies ended 2 giving their name to the “Hawthorneeffect”, the extremely influential idea that the very 3 to beingexperimented upon changed subjects’ behavior.

The idea arose because of the 4behavior of the women in the Hawthorne plant. According to 5 of theexperiments, their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but alsowhen it was dimmed. It did not 6 what was done in the experiment; 7something was changed, productivity rose. A(n) 8 that they were beingexperimented upon seemed to be 9 to alter workers’ behavior 10 itself.

After several decades, the same datawere 11 to econometric analysis. Hawthorne experiments has anothersurprise in store 12 the descriptions on record, no systematic 13was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting.

It turns out that peculiar way ofconducting the experiments may be have led to 14 interpretation of whathapped. 15, lighting was always changed on a Sunday. When work startedagain on Monday, output 16 rose compared with the previous Saturday and 17to rise for the next couple of days. 18, a comparison with data forweeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up onMonday, workers 19 to be diligent for the first few days of the week inany case, before 20 a plateau and then slackening off. This suggeststhat the alleged “Hawthorne effect” is hard to pin down.

1.    [A] affected               [B] achieved              [C] extracted             [D] restored

2.    [A] at                        [B] up                      [C] with                    [D] off

3.    [A] truth                    [B]sight                   [C] act                      [D] proof

4.    [A] controversial        [B] perplexing           [C]mischievous         [D] ambiguous

5.    [A] requirements        [B] explanations        [C]accounts              [D]assessments

6.    [A] conclude              [B]matter                 [C] indicate               [D]work

7.    [A] as far as               [B] for fear that[C] in case that                   [D] so long as

8.    [A] awareness             [B] expectation          [C] sentiment            [D] illusion

9.    [A] suitable                [B]excessive             [C]enough                [D] abundant

10.   [A] about                   [B]for                      [C] on                      [D] by

11.   [A] compared             [B]shown                 [C]subjected             [D]conveyed

12.   [A] contrary to           [B] consistent with[C] parallel with             [D] peculiar to

13.   [A] evidence              [B] guidance             [C] implication          [D] source

14.   [A] disputable            [B] enlightening        [C] reliable               [D] misleading

15.   [A] In contrast            [B] For example        [C] In consequence    [D] As usual

16.   [A] duly                    [B] accidentally[C]unpredictably                [D] suddenly

17.   [A] failed                   [B]ceased                 [C] started                 [D] continued

18.[A]Therefore           [B]Furthermore     [C]However           [D]Meanwhile

19.[A]Attempted         [B]tended             [C]chose               [D]intended

20.   [A] breaking              [B] climbing             [C]surpassing           [D] hitting


1.A

A affect 意思是“影响,感动”; B achieve意思是“达成,完成”; Cextract意思是“提取,榨出”;Drestore是“恢复,重建”这句话的意思是:他们想通过实验探究车间照明是如何影响工人的生产率的,所以答案是A

2.B

解析:

【答案及解析】B词汇题。测试考生逻辑关系判断和短语词义辨析能力。end up doing sth.表示“最终成为”,强调“意想不到的结局”(not originally intend to...)。例如:If you dont know what you wantyou might end up getting something you dont want.如果你不知道自己需要什么,你最后得到的可能就是自己不想要的东西。空格所在的句子所要表达的意思是:相反,该研究竟然将其试验的名称命名为“霍桑效应”。所以选B 第一段第三句ended up和第二句hoped形成语义对照,即“最开始希望……结果却……”。

【干扰项分析】C选项end with也是词组,意思是“以……结束”,with后面通常接名词性词组其结局通常是可以预见的。A选项at不能与动词end构成合理搭配, D选项构成短语end sth. off with sth.,意为“(妥当地或顺利地)结束某事物”,都不符合句中语法结构和语义要求,所以予以排除。


3.C

解析:本句的大意为:研究最终总结为一个极具影响力的概念—“霍桑效应”,也正是实验所研究的行为改变了工人们的表现。所以这里应选择C

4.B

解析:作者这里表达的意思是这个问题之所以引起大家的注意是因为工厂女工的行为令人费解。四个选项中perplexing意为“令人费解的”,所以正确答案为B

5.C

解析:本句的含义是:根据研究描述,当照明灯变亮或变暗时,工人的时产量就会提高。四个选项中有描述含义的是C accounts

6.B

解析:这句话的意思是:实验中做什么并不重要。 Do not matter 固定表达,故选B

7.D

解析:考查so longas 短语,意思是“只有”,句子意思是:只要有改变,生产率就会上升。

8.A

解析:Aawareness 意思是“意识”,Bexpectation意为“期望”,Csentiment 意为“”观点,意见,Dillusion 为“幻觉”,本句的大意是说:工人知到自己本身是被研究对象-这一意识就足以改变他们的行为。所以选A

9.C

解析:见第8题解析。

10.D

解析:见第8题解析。

11.C

解析:besubjected to表示“服从于,与……一致’,为固定短语。

12.A

解析:contrary to表示“与…相反“。根据语境提示,空白处需要填写一个能表示转折意味的链接词。

13.A

解析:只有evidence一词可与found呼应,表示“发现或找到证据”。

14.D

misleading“欺骗性,误导性的”,意思上来看,符合语境所表达的意思。

15.B

解析:for example与上句呼应,举例说明问题。

16.A

解析:duly表示“准时地,在同一个时间地”,填入句中后意思表达更精确。

17.D

解析:与前句dulyrose呼应,递进说明问题,故应选continue

18.C

解析:此句意思与上句相反,说明另一种情况,故应使用转折词but

19.B

解析:tend to do“倾向于做某事”,说明一种常规的事实。

20.D

解析:hit 能与a plateau搭配,意为“到达高地,触及顶点”,句意才符合语境。