Religion and Science

宗教与科学


Einstein and one of his scientific heroes, James Clerk Maxwell, both see the divine in the working out of science (though they are not aligned on their reasoning). Using the lecture and this excerpt from Einstein's article on Religion and Science, pages 24-28, accessible here compare and contrast Einstein's view of science and religion with that of James Clerk Maxwell in this excerpt from his 1873 article "Molecules".

爱因斯坦和他的一位科学英雄,詹姆斯•克拉克•麦克斯韦,都在科学研究中看到了神圣(尽管他们的推理并不一致)。通过讲座,这是从爱因斯坦对宗教和科学的文章,第24-28页,访问这里,用詹姆斯•克拉克•麦克斯韦在他的1873年的文章摘录“分子”比较和对比爱因斯坦的科学观和宗教信仰。

Maxwell on God, excerpted from "Molecules" (1873): 

麦斯威尔神,摘自“分子”(1873):

"…But in the heavens we discover by their light, and by their light alone, stars so distant from each other that no material thing can ever have passed from one to another, and yet this light, which is to us the sole evidence of the existence of these distant worlds, tells us also that each of them is built up of molecules of the same kinds as those which we find on earth. A molecule of hydrogen, for example, whether in Sirius or in Arcturus, executes its vibrations in precisely the same time. 

“…但在天上我们发现光,单靠他们的光,星星互相那么遥远,没有材料能通过从一个到另一个,但这光,这是我们这些遥远世界的存在的唯一证据,也告诉我们,每个人建立的分子相同的那些我们发现地球上。例如,一个氢分子,无论是在天狼星还是在大角星,都在同一时间内执行它的振动。

Each molecule, therefore, throughout the universe, bears impressed on it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of the Archives at Paris, or the double royal cubit of the Temple of Karnac. 

因此,在整个宇宙中,每一个分子都给它留下了深刻的印象,这是一个公制的印记,就像巴黎的档案一样,或者是卡尔纳克神庙的双重皇家腕尺。

No theory of evolution can be formed to account for the similarity of molecules, for evolution necessarily implies continuous change, and the molecule is incapable of growth or decay, of generation or destruction.

 没有进化论可以解释分子的相似性,因为进化必然意味着连续的变化,而分子是不能生长或衰变的,产生或破坏的。

None of the processes of Nature, since the time when Nature began, have produced the slightest difference in the properties of any molecule. We are therefore unable to ascribe either the existence of the molecules or the identity of their properties to the operation of any of the causes which we call natural. 

自然界开始以来,自然界的任何一个过程都没有产生任何分子性质的细微差别。因此,我们不能将分子的存在或它们的性质的同一性归因于我们称之为自然的任何原因的操作。

On the other hand, the exact equality of each molecule to all others of the same kind gives it, as Sir John Herschel has well said, the essential character of a manufactured article, and precludes the idea of its being eternal and self existent. 

另一方面,正如约翰•赫歇尔爵士所言,每个分子对同类的完全平等赋予了它一种人造物品的本质特征,并排除了它的永恒和自我存在的概念。

Thus we have been led, along a strictly scientific path, very near to the point at which Science must stop. Not that Science is debarred from studying the internal mechanism of a molecule which she cannot take to pieces, any more than from investigating an organism which she cannot put together. But in tracing back the history of matter Science is arrested when she assures herself, on the one hand, that the molecule has been made, and on the other that it has not been made by any of the processes we call natural.

因此,我们沿着一条严格科学的道路,走得非常接近科学必须停止的临界点。并不是说科学被禁止研究一种分子的内部机制,而这种机制是她不能将其分解的,而不是研究一个她无法将其组合在一起的有机体。但在追溯物质科学的历史时,当她向自己保证,分子已经被制造出来,而另一方面,它并没有被我们称为自然的任何过程所制造时,就被抓住了。

Science is incompetent to reason upon the creation of matter itself out of nothing. We have reached the utmost limit of our thinking faculties when we have admitted that because matter cannot be eternal and self-existent it must have been created. 

科学不能无条件地创造物质本身。当我们承认,因为物质不能是永恒的和自我存在的,所以我们已经达到了我们思维能力的极限。

It is only when we contemplate, not matter in itself, but the form in which it actually exists, that our mind finds something on which it can lay hold.

 只有当我们思考,而不是物质本身,而是它存在的形式时,我们的头脑才会发现它所能容纳的东西。

That matter, as such, should have certain fundamental properties — that it should exist in space and be capable of motion, that its motion should be persistent, and so on, are truths which may, for anything we know, be of the kind which metaphysicians call necessary. We may use our knowledge of such truths for purposes of deduction but we have no data for speculating as to their origin.

 这件事,因此,要有一定的基本特性,它应该存在的空间和能够运动,它的运动应该是持续的,等等,都是真理,我们知道,是一种形而上学家称必要的。我们可以用我们对这些真理的认识来推论,但我们没有数据来推测它们的起源。

But that there should be exactly so much matter and no more in every molecule of hydrogen is a fact of a very different order. We have here a particular distribution of matter — a collocation — to use the expression of Dr. Chalmers, of things which we have no difficulty in imagining to have been arranged otherwise. 

但是应该有这么多的物质,而每个氢分子中没有更多的物质是一个完全不同的顺序。我们这里有一种特殊的物质分布——一种搭配——使用查默斯博士的表达,我们在想象中没有遇到任何困难。

The form and dimensions of the orbits of the planets, for instance, are not determined by any law of nature, but depend upon a particular collocation of matter. The same is the case with respect to the size of the earth, from which the standard of what is called the metrical system has been derived. But these astronomical and terrestrial magnitudes are far inferior in scientific importance to that most fundamental of all standards which forms the base of the molecular system. Natural causes, as we know, are at work, which tend to modify, if they do not at length destroy, all the arrangements and dimensions of the earth and the whole solar system. But though in the course of ages catastrophes have occurred and may yet occur in the heavens, though ancient systems may be dissolved and new systems evolved out of their ruins, the molecules out of which these systems are built — the foundation stones of the material universe — remain unbroken and unworn. 

例如,行星轨道的形状和维度并不取决于任何自然法则,而是取决于物质的特殊配置。对于地球的大小也是如此,由此得出了所谓的度量系统的标准。但是这些天文和陆地的数量在科学上的重要性远远低于构成分子系统基础的最基本的标准。正如我们所知道的,自然原因正在起作用,如果它们不最终破坏地球和整个太阳系的所有排列和维度,它们就会发生变化。但在灾难发生的年龄当然还可能在天空出现,但古老的系统可能被解散,新的系统进化出了他们的遗迹,分子组成这些系统的建立的基石的物质宇宙,却绵绵不绝。

They continue this day as they were created, perfect in number and measure and weight, and from the ineffaceable characters impressed on them we may learn that those aspirations after accuracy in measurement, truth in statement, and justice in action, which we reckon among our noblest attributes as men, are ours because they are essential constituents of the image of Him Who in the beginning created, not only the heaven and the earth, but the materials of which heaven and earth consist." 

他们继续这一天出现,完美在数量和测量和重量,并不能抹杀的角色印象深刻的我们可以学习那些渴望在测量精度后,真理在声明中,正义的行动,我们认为在我们高贵的属性是男性,是我们的,因为他们是他的形象的基本成分一开始创建,不仅天地,而且还有天地的材料。”

 Complete text: 

完整内容:

http://www.victorianweb.org/science/maxwell/molecules.html