spooky action at a distance

鬼魅般的超距作用


Einstein to Born, 1947: 

爱因斯坦出生,1947:

I cannot make a case for my attitude in physics which you would consider at all reasonable. I admit, of course, that there is a considerable amount of validity in the statistical approach which you were the first to recognise clearly as necessary given the framework of the existing formalism. I cannot seriously believe in it because the theory cannot be reconciled with the idea that physics should represent a reality in time and space, free from spooky actions at a distance. I am, however, not yet firmly convinced that it can really be achieved with a continuous field theory, although I have discovered a possible way of doing this which so far seems quite reasonable. The calculation difficulties are so great that I will be biting the dust long before I myself can be fully convinced of it. But I am quite convinced that someone will eventually come up with a theory whose objects, connected by laws, are not probabilities but considered facts, as used to be taken for granted until quite recently. I cannot, however, base this conviction on logical reasons, but can only produce my little finger as witness, that is, I offer no authority which would be able to command any kind of respect outside of my own hand. 

我不能证明我的物理态度,你会认为这是合理的。当然,我承认,在现有形式主义的框架下,你是第一个清楚地认识到这一点的统计方法中有相当多的有效性。我不能认真地相信它,因为理论不能与物理应该在时间和空间上代表一个现实的观点相一致,从远处的恐怖行动中解脱出来。然而,我还没有坚定地相信,用一个连续的场论来实现这一目标,尽管我已经发现了一种可能的方法,迄今为止,这似乎是相当合理的。计算的困难是如此之大,以至于在我能完全相信它之前,我就会把它吞噬掉。但我确信,最终会有人提出一种理论,它的对象与法律相联系,并不是概率,而是被认为是事实,就像过去被认为是理所当然的一样。然而,我不能以逻辑理由来证明这一点,但只能用我的小手指作为证人,也就是说,我没有任何权力,可以在我自己的手中掌握任何一种尊重。

Back when Einstein wrote this bit of a letter to Max Born in 1947, it was a matter of opinion and judgment about whether "spooky action at a distance" would prove a lasting feature of the new quantum theory. Our lesson (including the discussions with Kaiser and Lukin) might lead you to a reply to Einstein, speaking from today's perspective.  Write a letter to Einstein, reporting on why it does appear, in the early 21st century, that spookiness is here to stay.  

 当爱因斯坦在1947年初给马克斯写这封信时,这是一个关于“幽灵般的远距离行动”是否会成为新量子理论永恒特征的看法和判断。我们的课程(包括Kaiser和卢金讨论)可能会导致你回复爱因斯坦,从今天的角度来说。写一封信给爱因斯坦,报告为什么会出现,早在二十一世纪,这个幽灵在这里停留。