spooky action at a distance


Einstein to Born, 1947: 


I cannot make a case for my attitude in physics which you would consider at all reasonable. I admit, of course, that there is a considerable amount of validity in the statistical approach which you were the first to recognise clearly as necessary given the framework of the existing formalism. I cannot seriously believe in it because the theory cannot be reconciled with the idea that physics should represent a reality in time and space, free from spooky actions at a distance. I am, however, not yet firmly convinced that it can really be achieved with a continuous field theory, although I have discovered a possible way of doing this which so far seems quite reasonable. The calculation difficulties are so great that I will be biting the dust long before I myself can be fully convinced of it. But I am quite convinced that someone will eventually come up with a theory whose objects, connected by laws, are not probabilities but considered facts, as used to be taken for granted until quite recently. I cannot, however, base this conviction on logical reasons, but can only produce my little finger as witness, that is, I offer no authority which would be able to command any kind of respect outside of my own hand. 


Back when Einstein wrote this bit of a letter to Max Born in 1947, it was a matter of opinion and judgment about whether "spooky action at a distance" would prove a lasting feature of the new quantum theory. Our lesson (including the discussions with Kaiser and Lukin) might lead you to a reply to Einstein, speaking from today's perspective.  Write a letter to Einstein, reporting on why it does appear, in the early 21st century, that spookiness is here to stay.