Einstein and Positivism

爱因斯坦和实证主义         

    

Einstein wrote to Moritz Schlick on 28November 1930:

 19301128日,爱因斯坦写信给摩里兹·石里克:                          

In general your presentation fails tocorrespond to my conceptual style insofar as I find your whole orientation soto speak too positivistic. ... I tell you straight out: Physics is the attemptat the conceptual construction of a model of the  real world and of its lawful structure. To be sure, it [physics] must present exactlythe empirical relations between those sense experiences to which we are open;but only  in this way  is it chained to them. ...In short, I sufferunder the (unsharp) separation of Reality of Experience and Reality of Being...

一般来说你的表现不符合我的风格,因为我觉得你的概念全方位这么说太实证主义。…我直截了当地告诉你:物理学是对现实世界模型及其合法结构的概念建构的尝试。可以肯定的是,它[物理学]必须准确地展现我们所感受到的那些感官经验之间的经验关系,但只有这样,才能把它们联系在一起。…总之,我遭受的(模糊)的是经验和现实分离…

You will be astonished about the"metaphysicist" Einstein. But every four- and two-legged animal is defacto in this sense metaphysicist.

你会对“形而上学家”爱因斯坦感到惊讶。但是每四只和两条腿的动物在这个意义上实际上是形而上学的。

Use the quotation and what you have learnedfrom the Philosophy lecture to analyze Einstein’s stance toward positivism in adiscussion with your peers. To start your discussion, you should address:

引用这句话,从哲学讲座中学到的东西,来分析爱因斯坦在与同行讨论时对实证主义的态度。要开始你的讨论,你应该注明:

1.      What is positivism asinterpreted by Ernst Mach?

 1、恩斯特·马赫所解释的实证主义是什么?                          

2.      What did Schlick believe about(logical) positivism in science?

 2。什么是Schlick相信关于(逻辑)的实证主义科学?

3.      In what sense, can we say thatEinstein was a positivist and a non-positivist?

3、在什么意义上,我们可以说爱因斯坦是实证论者和非实证论者吗?